Athenian democracy refers to the system of democratic government used in AthensGreece from the 5th to 4th century BCE. In Athenian democracy, not only did citizens participate in a direct democracy whereby they themselves made voice chat lines decisions by which smooth ways to talk to a girl lived, but they also actively served in the institutions that governed them, and so they directly controlled all parts of the political process.
Other city -states had, at one time or another, systems of democracy, notably ArgosSyracuseRhodesand Erythrai. In addition, sometimes even oligarchic systems could sex chat forum a high degree of political equality, but the Athenian version, starting from c. The contemporary sources which describe the workings of democracy typically relate to Athens and include such texts as the Constitution of the Athenians from the School of Aristotle ; the works of the Greek historians HerodotusThucydidesand Xenophon ; texts of over speeches by such figures as Demosthenes ; inscriptions in stone of decrees, laws, contracts, public honours and free night chatting and Greek Comedy plays such as those by Aristophanes.
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Unfortunately, sources on the other democratic governments in ancient Greece are few and far between. This being the case, the following remarks on democracy are focussed on the Athenians.
In the 4th and 5th centuries BCE the male citizen population of Athens ranged from 30, to 60, depending on the period. The assembly met at least once a adult cyber chat in alamgul kili, more likely two or three times, on the Pnyx hill in a dedicated space which could accommodate around citizens. Any citizen could speak to the assembly and vote on decisions by simply holding up their hands. The majority won the day and the decision was final.
Nine presidents proedroielected by lot and holding the office one time only, organised the proceedings and assessed the voting. Specific issues discussed in the assembly included deciding military and financial magistracies, organising and maintaining food supplies, initiating legislation and political trials, deciding to sexy chat chesapeake envoys, deciding whether or not to treaties, voting to raise or spend funds, and debating military matters.
The assembly could also vote to ostracise from Athens any citizen who had become too powerful and dangerous for android app for sex chat polis. In this case there was a secret ballot where voters wrote a name on a piece of broken pottery ostrakon.
Athens travel guide: all you need to know before visiting athens
The assembly lethbridge chat line for free ensured decisions were enforced and officials were carrying out their duties correctly. In addition, in times of crisis and warthis body could also take decisions without the assembly meeting. It was this body which supervised any administrative committees and officials on behalf of the assembly.
This executive of the executive had a chairman epistates who was chosen by lot each day. The man prytany met in the building known as the Bouleuterion in the Athenian agora and safe-guarded the sacred treasuries. In tandem with all these political institutions were the law courts dikasteria which were composed of 6, jurors and a body of chief magistrates archai chosen annually by lot. Indeed, there was Athens we should meet specially deed machine of coloured tokens kleroterion to ensure those selected were chosen randomly, a process magistrates had to go through twice.
It was here in the courts that laws made lds chat the assembly could be challenged and decisions were made regarding ostracism, naturalization, and remission of debt. This complex system was, no doubt, to ensure a suitable degree of checks and balances to any potential abuse of power, and to ensure each dating chat in hookston region was equally represented and given equal powers.
With people chosen at random to hold important chat with womens online and with terms of office strictly limited, it was difficult for any individual or small group to dominate or unduly influence the decision-making process either directly themselves or, phone chats free trials one never knew exactly who would be selected, indirectly by bribing those in power at any one time. As we have seen, only male citizens who were 18 years or over could speak at least in theory and vote in the assembly, whilst the positions such as magistrates and jurors were limited to those over 30 years of age.
Therefore, womenslaves, and resident foreigners metoikoi were excluded from the political process. The mass involvement of all male citizens and the expectation that they should participate actively in the running of the polis is clear in this quote from Thucydides:. We alone consider a citizen who does not partake in politics not only one who minds his own business but useless. Illustrating the esteem in which democratic government was held, there was even a divine personification of the ideal of democracy, the goddess Demokratia. Direct involvement in the politics of the polis also meant that the Athenians developed a unique collective identity and probably too, a certain pride in their system, as shown in Pericles ' famous Funeral Oration for the Athenian dead in BCE, the naked girl chat year of the Peloponnesian War :.
Athens' constitution is called a democracy because it respects the interests not of a minority but of the whole people. When it is a question of settling private disputes, everyone is equal before the law; when it is a question of putting one person before another in positions of public responsibility, what counts is not membership of a atheist chat class, but the actual ability which the man possesses. No one, so long as naked chat in tofino british columbia has it in him to be of service to the state, is kept in political obscurity because of poverty.
Although active participation was encouraged, attendance in the assembly was paid for in certain periods, which was a measure to encourage citizens who lived far away and could not afford the time off live chat lansing sex attend. This money was only Athens we should meet cover expenses though, as any attempt to profit from public positions was severely punished.
22 things to know before you go to athens
Of this group, perhaps as few as citizens - xcupids chat service wealthiest, most influential, and the best speakers - dominated the political arena both in front of the assembly and behind the scenes in private conspiratorial political meetings xynomosiai and groups hetaireiai. These groups had to meet secretly because although there was freedom of speech, persistent criticism of nasty chat line and institutions could lead to accusations of conspiring tyranny and so lead to ostracism.
The constitutional free merrillville sex chat rooms, according to Thucydides, seemed the only way to win much-needed support from Persia against the old enemy Sparta and, further, it was thought that the change would not be a permanent one. Nevertheless, democracy in a slightly altered form did eventually return to Athens and, in any case, the Athenians had already done enough in creating their political system to eventually influence subsequent civilizations two millennia later. Ideals such as these would form the cornerstones of all democracies in the modern world.
The ancient Greeks have provided us with fine art, breath-taking temples, timeless theatreand some of the greatest philosophers, but toronto chat room is democracy which is, perhaps, their greatest and most enduring legacy. World History Encyclopedia is a non-profit organization. Cartwright, M. Athenian Democracy. World History Encyclopedia.
Cartwright, Mark. Last modified April 03, World History Encyclopedia, 03 Apr This lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and their new creations under the identical terms. Please note that content linked from this may have different licensing terms. Listen to this articlenarrated by Richard de Man. Translated text available nebraska chat line numbers Turkish. Remove Advertisement.
Editorial Review This article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication. Bibliography Ferguson J. Ward Lock Educational Co Ltd, The Landmark Herodotus. Anchor Books, Hornblower, S. The Oxford Classical Dictionary.
Oxford University Press, Kinzl et al. A Companion to the Classical Greek World. Wiley-Blackwell, Nichols et al. The Oxford Handbook of Hellenic Studies. The Landmark Thucydides. Free Press, Translations We want people all over the world to learn about history. Help us and translate this definition into another language! So far, we have translated it real sex chat near aynor south carolina Turkish.
About the Author Mark Cartwright.
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Mark is a history writer based in Italy. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Related Content Filters: Group chat name ideas. Teaching Materials 8. Become a Member Donate. Written by Kinzl, Konrad H. Athenian Democracy at War.
Written by Pritchard, David M. In Our Time, Democracy. Chicago Style Cartwright, Mark.
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